Session 1MATERIAL SCIENCE ENGINEERING
Materials science is an interdisciplinary field of researching and discovering materials. Materials engineering is an engineering field of designing and improving materials, and finding uses for materials in other fields and industries. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Age of Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more widely recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, and major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools for its study.
Session 2GLASS CERAMIC
Glass-ceramics are polycrystalline materials produced through controlled crystallization of base glass, producing a fine uniform dispersion of crystals throughout the bulk material. Crystallization is accomplished by subjecting suitable glasses to a carefully regulated heat treatment schedule, resulting in the nucleation and growth of crystal phases. In many cases, the crystallization process can proceed to near completion, but in a small proportion of processes, the residual glass phase often remains.Glass-ceramic materials share many properties with both glasses and ceramics. Glass-ceramics have an amorphous phase and one or more crystalline phases and are produced by a so-called “controlled crystallization” in contrast to a spontaneous crystallization, which is usually not wanted in glass manufacturing.
A metamaterial is any material engineered to have a property that is not found in naturally occurring materials. They are made from assemblies of multiple elements fashioned from composite materials such as metals and plastics. These materials are usually arranged in repeating patterns, at scales that are smaller than the wavelengths of the phenomena they influence. Metamaterials derive their properties not from the properties of the base materials, but from their newly designed structures. Their precise shape, geometry, size, orientation and arrangement gives them their smart properties capable of manipulating electromagnetic waves: by blocking, absorbing, enhancing, or bending waves, to achieve benefits that go beyond what is possible with conventional materials.
Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defined nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.
Session 5POLYMER SCIENCE
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers. The field of polymer science includes researchers in multiple disciplines including chemistry, physics, and engineering.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are known as alloys. Metallurgy encompasses both the science and the technology of metals; that is, the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components used in products for both consumers and manufacturers. Metallurgy is distinct from the craft of metalworking. Metalworking relies on metallurgy in a similar manner to how medicine relies on medical science for technical advancement. A specialist practitioner of metallurgy is known as a metallurgist.
Mining is the extraction of valuable geological materials from the Earth and other astronomical objects. Mining is required to obtain most materials that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.
Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing fusion. Welding is distinct from lower temperature techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal. In addition to melting the base metal, a filler material is typically added to the joint to form a pool of molten material that cools to form a joint that, based on weld configuration (butt, full penetration, fillet, etc.), can be stronger than the base material. Pressure may also be used in conjunction with heat or by itself to produce a weld. Welding also requires a form of shield to protect the filler metals or melted metals from being contaminated or oxidized.
Session 9FIBER OPTIC SENSOR
A fiber-optic sensor is a sensor that uses optical fiber either as the sensing element (“intrinsic sensors”), or as a means of relaying signals from a remote sensor to the electronics that process the signals (“extrinsic sensors”). Fibers have many uses in remote sensing. Depending on the application, fiber may be used because of its small size, or because no electrical power is needed at the remote location, or because many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using light wavelength shift for each sensor, or by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor. Time delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer and wavelength shift can be calculated using an instrument implementing optical frequency domain reflectometry. Fiber-optic sensors are also immune to electromagnetic interference, and do not conduct electricity so they can be used in places where there is high voltage electricity or flammable material such as jet fuel. Fiber-optic sensors can be designed to withstand high temperatures as well.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, like metallic copper, and an insulator, like glass. Its resistivity falls as its temperature rises; metals behave within the opposite way. Its conducting properties could also be altered in useful ways by introducing impurities into the crystal structure. When two differently doped regions exist within the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is made. Semiconductor devices can display a variety of useful properties, like passing current more easily in one direction than the opposite , showing variable resistance, and having sensitivity to light or heat. Application of electrical fields, devices made up of semiconductors are often used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion. Semiconductors are wont to produce a spread of device types, including diodes , transistors, and integrated circuits. Semiconductors in their normal state, weak conductors as a current allows electrons to pass, stopping the whole influx of latest electrons and making their valence bands filled up.
Session 11MATERIALS CHEMISTRY
Materials Chemistry is the section of materials Science and Engineering that investigates the chemical nature of accoutrements. This is a fast- growing and largely interdisciplinary area with veritably flexible boundaries. Materials chemistry involves the operation of chemistry for the design and conflation of accoutrements with potentially functional physical characteristics, similar as catalytic, glamorous, optic and structural parcels. It also involves the characterization, processing and molecular- position understanding of these substances. Functional accoutrements are erecting blocks of ultramodern society and play a critical part in the elaboration of technology. Accoutrements chemistry is unique in furnishing the intellectual foundation to design, produce, and understand new forms of matter, let it be organic, inorganic, or cold-blooded accoutrements.
Magnetism is the class of physical attributes that are mediated by a magnetic field, which refers to the capacity to induce attractive and repulsive phenomena in other entities. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. Magnetism is one aspect of the combined phenomena of electromagnetism. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Demagnetizing a magnet is also possible. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, cobalt, and nickel and their alloys. The rare-earth metals neodymium and samarium are less common examples. The prefix ferro- refers to iron because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4.
Plastics are a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient. Their plasticity makes it possible for plastics to be moulded, extruded or pressed into solid objects of various shapes. This adaptability, plus a wide range of other properties, such as being lightweight, durable, flexible, and inexpensive to produce, has led to its widespread use. Plastics typically are made through human industrial systems. Most modern plastics are derived from fossil fuel-based chemicals like natural gas or petroleum; however, recent industrial methods use variants made from renewable materials, such as corn or cotton derivatives.
Session 14GRAPHENE TECHNOLOGY
Graphene is that the first 2D substance within the world, and it’s the foremost versatile, thinest and strongest substance. Graphene may be a specific sort of carbon which will better conduct electricity and warmth than anything . Graphene is essentially one layer of graphite, a sheet of bonded carbon atoms sp2 arranged during a hexagonal (honeycomb) lattice. Graphene may be a carbon allotrope composed from one sheet of atoms organised during a honeycomb lattice nanostructure in two dimensions. Because of its outstanding lastingness , electrical conductivity, transparency, and standing because the world’s thinnest 2D material, graphene has become a valuable and useful nanomaterial. However, there could also be quite one isomer for a few n numbers. Fullerenes greatly increased the amount of known carbon allotropes, which had previously been limited to graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon like soot and charcoal. They’ve generated tons of interest, both due to their chemistry and since of their technical applications, particularly in materials science, electronics, and nanotechnology. Graphene features a lot of promise for extra applications: anti-corrosion coatings and paints, efficient and precise sensors, faster and efficient electronics, flexible displays, efficient solar panels, faster DNA sequencing, drug delivery, and more.
Session 15BIOMECHANICS & BIO MATERIALS
Biomechanics and Biomaterials involves the kinematics and kinetics relevant to human anatomy, such as human motion, including linear, angular, and nonlinear analyses, and fluid mechanics relating to human physiology (e.g. blood flow, air flow), including flow, resistance, and turbulence. Stresses and strains in biological tissues, determined experimentally or with computer simulations, help to understand relationships between structure, function, remodeling, and degradation of the tissues.
Session 163D PRINTING
The construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model is appertained as 3D printing or manufacturing. The term”3D printing” can concentrate on a number of procedures in which material is deposited, combined, or solidified under computer control to produce a three-dimensional object, frequently subcaste by subcaste. 3D printing ways were considered only suitable for the product of functional or aesthetic prototypes, and rapid-fire prototyping was a more applicable term at the time. As of 2021, the most common 3D printing process is fused deposit modelling (FDM), which uses a nonstop hair of a thermoplastic material.
Session 17ENERGY SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS
Energy Systems & Materials deals with materials used in systems that ensure our energy supply. The high-temperature materials for gas turbines in power plants, which in the future are needed as backup systems in an environment where renewable energy sources dominate. Selected material problems from renewable energy systems relying on wind energy and solar energy are discussed. The important materials properties governing the service life of high-temperature components are creep, high-temperature corrosion and high-temperature fatigue. Concerning wind energy, the processing and manufacturing of large wings and gear boxes are discussed, together with the elementary damage mechanisms governing the exploitable service life of these key components.
Session 18FLUID MECHANICS
Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. It has applications in a wide range of disciplines, including mechanical, aerospace, civil, chemical and biomedical engineering, geophysics, oceanography, meteorology, astrophysics, and biology. It can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms; that is, it models matter from a macroscopic viewpoint rather than from microscopic. Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research, typically mathematically complex. Many problems are partly or wholly unsolved and are best addressed by numerical methods, typically using computers. A modern discipline, called computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is devoted to this approach. Particle image velocimetry, an experimental method for visualizing and analyzing fluid flow, also takes advantage of the highly visual nature of fluid flow.
Materiomics is defined as the holistic study of material systems. Materiomics examines links between physiochemical material properties and material characteristics and function. The focus of Materiomics is system functionality and behaviour, rather than a piecewise collection of properties, a paradigm similar to systems biology. While typically applied to complex biological systems and biomaterials, Materiomics is equally applicable to non-biological systems. Materiomics investigates the material properties of natural and synthetic materials by examining fundamental links between processes, structures and properties at multiple scales, from Nano to macro, by using systematic experimental, theoretical or computational methods.
Nanozymes are nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics. They have been widely explored for various applications, such as biosensing, bioimaging, tumor diagnosis and therapy, antibiofouling. In 2006, nanoceria was used for preventing retinal degeneration induced by intracellular peroxides. In 2007, Xiyun Yan and co-workers reported that ferromagnetic nanoparticles possessed intrinsic peroxidase-like activity.
Session 21MATERIAL CHARACTERISATION
In terms of materials science, characterization refers to the comprehensive and all-encompassing process of probing and measuring a material’s structure and properties. Without it, no scientific understanding of engineering materials could be established. It is an essential procedure in the field of materials research. The range of the term’s application varies greatly; for example, some definitions restrict its use to methods that examine the microscopic structure and characteristics of materials, whereas others use the term to describe any process of materials analysis, including macroscopic methods like mechanical testing, thermal analysis, and density calculation. The size of the structures seen during materials characterisation can range from angstroms, as in the imaging of individual atoms and chemical bonds, up to centimetres, as in the imaging of large-scale structures.
Session 22EMERGING SMART MATERIALS
The capability of a nation to harness nature as well as its ability to handle the challenges presented by it is determined by its total understanding of substances and its ability to widen and deliver them for various packages. Many technical advances that affect our daily lives are centred on advanced materials. Materials for strategic packages, mild alloys for higher transportation, optical and laser fibres for smart environment sensors, and electronic materials for conversation and record technologies are only a few examples. Due to their numerous uses and potential benefits for all of humanity, modern materials will play a significantly larger role in the years to come.
Session 23BATTERIES & ENERGY MATERIALS
A tool such as an unmarried or a variety of chemical technology cells with outside connections supplied to electricity electronic devices like flashlights, cellphones, and electric cars can be considered an electric powered battery. When an electric battery is interested in electricity, the cathode is its active terminal and the anode is its passive terminal. The terminal with a poor signal is where electrons are delivered that, when connected to an external circuit, can power an external tool. Materials partner degree power balances rectangle-shaped accounting tables that offer information on the material input into an economy that is provided by the natural environment, the transformation and use of that input in monetary activities (extraction, conversion, producing, The fundamental tenet of physical physics is that matter (mass/power) cannot be created or destroyed by any physical process. The accounting ideas involved rectangular degree as their foundation. The United States of America wants to increase its efforts in developing materials and technology that focus on power generation, power harvesting, power conversion, and power storage.
Session 24SYNTHESIS & CATALYSIS
Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by using a catalyst. Catalysts are not consumed in the reaction and thus remain unaffected by it. Often, only a trace amount of catalyst is required. Catalysts generally react with one or more reactants to form intermediates that then give the final reaction product, regenerating the catalyst in the process.
Session 25GREEN TECHNOLOGIES
Green materials are local and regenerative materials. Local materials are special to the area and bind whatever people in a region make. Products such as stone, cement, and sand are green products from the earth. Plant materials like bamboo, grasses, wool, and wood are also materials that have been used by humans since construction started.
Session 26NANO FLUIDICS
Nanofluidics is the investigation of the conduct, control, and control of liquids that are bound to structures of nanometer (normally 1–100 nm) trademark measurements (1 nm = 10−9 m). Liquids kept in these structures display physical practices not saw in bigger structures, for example, those of micrometer measurements or more, in light of the fact that the trademark physical scaling lengths of the liquid, (for example Debye length, hydrodynamic sweep) intently correspond with the elements of the nanostructure itself. All electric interfaces incite a sorted out charge dispersion close to the surface known as the electrical twofold layer. In pores of nanometer measurements the electrical twofold layer may totally traverse the width of the nanopore, bringing about sensational changes in the creation of the liquid and the related properties of smooth movement in the structure nanotechnology designing control of planning and building nanorobots. Nano machines are to a great extent in the innovative work stage.
Session 27PHARMACEUTICAL NANOTECHNOLOGY
The field of drug nanotechnology gives a bits of knowledge into the investigation of combination, characterization and analytic utilization of materials at the nanoscale. The specific enthusiasm inside the field is amalgamation, characterization, natural assessment, clinical testing and toxicological appraisal of nanomaterials as medications for different diseases. Nanotechnology is the science which manages the cycles that happen at atomic level and of nanolength scale size. The significant examinations in the nanotechnology incorporate nanosized particles, their capacity and conduct as for different frameworks. The enormous capacities of nanoparticles have changed the viewpoint and extent of nanotechnology towards advancement into an adjuvant field for the rest of the fields of life sciences.
Session 28CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. The session will cover all aspects, from basic research and material characterization, through physicochemical aspects of growth and deposition techniques, to the technological development of industrialized materials.